Godiva

December 17, 2010

作品名稱:Godiva

年代:2015

作者:李蕢至

尺寸:210mm x 160mm

媒材:水性油墨

版種:凸版 (X1)

版數:18

 

Title : Godiva

Year : 2015

Artist : LEE, KUEI-CHIH

Size: 210mm x 160mm

Material : Ink

Kinds : Relief printing, Plastic engraving, X1

Original : 18

 

此作概念來自於"GODIVA"迷人的傳說故事,並以1898年John Collier所繪製的"Lady Godiva"的油畫作品圖像為原型,改變部分圖像後刻製而成。

 

傳說:

依據傳說,戈黛娃夫人是麥西亞伯爵利奧弗里克(Leofric, Earl of Mercia)美麗的妻子。當時利奧夫里克對考文垂市民們強加重稅,戈黛娃夫人不斷的向丈夫求情希望減免稅收,但都被他頑固的拒絕了。最後,利奧夫里克對妻子不斷的求情感到厭煩,宣稱只要她能裸體騎馬繞行市內的街道,他便願意減免稅收。戈黛娃夫人果真照著他的話去做,向全市宣告命令所有人躲在屋內並拉下窗戶後,她赤身裸體、只披著一頭長髮騎馬繞行街道。有一名裁縫師Tom違反了命令,在窗子上鑿了一個小洞偷窺,接著他的雙眼便瞎掉了,這個人後來成了英語偷窺狂(Peeping Tom)一詞的由來。之後戈黛娃的丈夫遵守諾言,赦免了繁重的稅賦。

另一個最老的故事版本,則是戈黛娃在如往常一般人潮眾多時繞行市場的街道,兩名騎馬的婦女(穿著衣服)伴隨著她。這個版本見於編年史家Roger of Wendover(死於1236年)所記載的Flores Historiarum一書裡,他引述了較早的一些紀錄,但Roger本人所收集的軼聞通常不太可信。這個版本中有關偷窺者Tom的記載首次在17世紀出現。究竟這個故事中的戈黛娃夫人是稱為Godiva還是Godgifu(「gift of God」上帝的禮物)在歷史上仍是未知數。

Roger of Wendover對於戈黛娃夫人時代的婦女權力和權利可能並不了解,當時戈黛娃所屬的家族在英國是第二富有的——僅次於戈徳溫(Godwins)家族——同時末日審判書中也記載了她當時擁有統治考文垂的權利。她可能繼承了許多丈夫的土地,同時她也擁有自己的土地。許多學者還推測她同樣是個嚴酷的地主。

當時的習俗是,懺悔者要在公開的場合下穿著一種直筒連衣裙——類似現代的連身襯裙的無袖白色服裝,亦即在今天被稱為「內衣」的服裝。戈黛娃或許是為了懺悔她的嚴酷治理行徑,以懺悔者的身分繞行城鎮,使她的人民目擊他們所恐懼的女主人丟臉地穿著內衣。因此,學者們推測,戈黛娃的故事或許是經由民謠的流傳而轉變為浪漫化的版本了。

傳說中戈黛娃的一頭長髮遮掩了她的身體避免被人看見,這也和偷窺者Tom的故事一樣起被視為是由後人所添加的內容。其他一些故事中的成分也和常見的神話及寓言類似:如對貴族的反抗、確切的承諾、嚴酷的統治環境、對貞潔的考驗。即使偷窺者Tom的故事是後人添加的,他的雙眼被刺瞎也證明了這個故事接近於褻瀆神秘將遭受懲罰的故事題材。

有些人也推測故事中戈黛娃夫人的「赤裸」,指的可能是她摘下了那些代表著上層階級的珠寶、徽記繞行街道。

 

Legend

The legend of the nude ride is first recorded in the 13th century, in the Flores Historiarum and the adaptation of it by Roger of Wendover; despite its considerable age, it is not regarded as plausible by modern historians, nor is it mentioned in the two centuries intervening between Godiva's death and its first appearance, while her generous donations to the church receive various mentions. According to the typical version of the story, Lady Godiva took pity on the people of Coventry, who were suffering grievously under her husband's oppressive taxation. Lady Godiva appealed again and again to her husband, who obstinately refused to remit the tolls. At last, weary of her entreaties, he said he would grant her request if she would strip naked and ride on a horse through the streets of the town. Lady Godiva took him at his word, and after issuing a proclamation that all persons should stay indoors and shut their windows, she rode through the town, clothed only in her long hair. Just one person in the town, a tailor ever afterwards known as Peeping Tom, disobeyed her proclamation in one of the most famous instances of voyeurism. In the story, Tom bores a hole in his shutters so that he might see Godiva pass, and is struck blind. In the end, Godiva's husband keeps his word and abolishes the onerous taxes.

Some historians have discerned elements of pagan fertility rituals in the Godiva story, whereby a young "May Queen" was led to the sacred Cofa's tree perhaps to celebrate the renewal of spring. The oldest form of the legend has Godiva passing through Coventry market from one end to the other while the people were assembled, attended only by two knights. This version is given in Flores Historiarum by Roger of Wendover (died 1236), a somewhat gullible collector of anecdotes, who quoted from unnamed earlier writers.

Lady Godiva: Edmund Blair Leighton depicts the moment of decision (1892)

Other attempts to find a more plausible rationale for the legend include one based on the custom at the time for penitents to make a public procession in their shift, a sleeveless white garment similar to a slip today and one which was certainly considered "underwear". Thus Godiva might have actually travelled through town as a penitent, in her shift. Godiva's story could have passed into folk history to be recorded in a romanticised version. Another theory has it that Lady Godiva's "nakedness" might refer to her riding through the streets stripped of her jewellery, the trademark of her upper class rank. However, these attempts to reconcile known facts with legend are both weak; in the era of the earliest accounts, the word "naked" is only known to mean "without any clothing whatsoever".

A modified version of the story was given by printer Richard Grafton, later elected MP for Coventry. According to his Chronicle of England(1569), "Leofricus" had already exempted the people of Coventry from "any maner of Tolle, Except onely of Horsse (sic.)", so that Godiva ("Godina" in text) had agreed to the naked ride just to win relief for this horse tax. And as a pre-condition, she required the officials of Coventry to forbid the populace "upon a great pain" from watching her, and to shut themselves in and shutter all windows on the day of her ride. Grafton was an ardent Protestant and sanitized the earlier story.

The ballad "Leoffricus" in the Percy Folio (ca. 1650) conforms to Grafton's version, saying that Lady Godiva performed her ride to remove the customs paid on horses, and that the town's officers ordered the townsfolk to "shutt their dore, & clap their windowes downe," and remain indoors on the day of her ride.

 

by WIKIPEDIA  https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%88%88%E9%BB%9B%E5%A8%83%E5%A4%AB%E4%BA%BA

 

 

 

 

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